Thank you for reading the COCO Chronicles and your interest in our work.
You can find new blog posts on the COCO website; www.coco.org.uk/blog
Thank you for reading the COCO Chronicles and your interest in our work.
You can find new blog posts on the COCO website; www.coco.org.uk/blog
This week, we are looking at the last of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The last goals that we are going to look at (12, 13 and 15) are all about the environment. Just less than 30% of the Earth’s surface is land, and the rest is water. Out of this 30%, much of our land is difficult to cultivate and live on, making good soil and natural resources a valuable asset.
In order to protect our environment for ourselves, future generations and for flora and fauna, we need to ensure that sustainability is at the heart of our initiatives.
SDG 12: Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
Sustainable consumption and production means that consumption and production of goods and services are socially beneficial and have a minimal impact upon the environment. This could mean a variety of things, from growing and eating local foods to developing tougher strains of fruits and vegetables so that they can grow in particularly challenging areas.
One way COCO has helped to develop sustainable consumption and production patterns is by financing loans for entrepreneurs in rural communities. For example, COCO has helped Alana Kihwili, from Tanzania, to start a small shop selling local produce, such as tomatoes, red onions and dried fish. By being able to start up her own business, Alana can now afford a better life for herself and her family. She is now able to send her children to school.
By helping to support entrepreneurs and farmers in rural communities, COCO facilitates better consumption and production patterns which don’t leave a giant carbon footprint. What’s more, as this process helps people to earn a living, it also makes it easier for children in the family to go to school.
SDG 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
Climate change is something that affects us all. From rising sea levels, to hurricanes and droughts, climate change is a global issue that requires a global response.
According to the United Nations Environment Programme, “No continent will be struck as severely by the impacts of climate change as Africa. Given its geographical position, the continent will be particularly vulnerable due to the considerably limited adaptive capacity, exacerbated by widespread poverty and the existing low levels of development.”
This means that climate change threatens life as we know it in Africa. If we fail to consider the environmental impact of our actions, it could be our undoing in the future. But it’s not all doom and gloom! In fact, a central element of our development initiatives is sustainability.
One way in which COCO is helping to take urgent action against climate change is by helping schools in Africa to embrace solar power. For example, in Songea, Tanzania, electricity is often unreliable with numerous power cuts which can last as long as a week. In addition to power cuts, many people simply do not have access to electricity at all. The majority of people rely on kerosene lamps to provide light at night. Kerosene is expensive, can cause serious health problems, fire hazards and ecological damage.
However, in November 2012, Gentoo, a business based in Sunderland, made a donation to COCO which has been used to purchase 24 solar lamps and solar power chargers to power laptops at Hoja Secondary School. COCO partnered with the Nuru Fund at Gentoo in order to pilot a solar power project at Hoja Secondary School; students could loan the equipment out and earn money, and then would repay the cost of the equipment by weekly instalments. Once the total amount was paid off, the students would keep the equipment and any future income. By paying back the equipment costs, COCO can reinvest this back into the school, so that more solar equipment can be bought.
SDG 15: Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
‘Terrestrial ecosystems’ might seem like a bit of a mouthful, but it actually refers to land-based ecosystems. There are many different types of these, including tundra, taiga, temperate deciduous forest, tropical rain forest, grassland and desert.
Protecting and using these ecosystems sustainably is a difficult task in the face of population and a growing global population relying on agriculture and industry. Managing and cultivating crops in difficult soils can also be problematic, as failing crops threaten food and employment security and using harsh chemicals and fertilizers undermines conservation objectives.
To raise awareness of these issues, the UN has declared 2015 the International Year of Soils. On the 4th of December 2015, the UN will be celebrating ‘World Soil Day’, aiming to educate people as to how soils provide a solid ground for life.
This blog post series has already focused on how COCO has helped rural communities to implement permaculture and sustainable agriculture techniques in order to enhance food security, agriculture education and employability among locals. However, it is important that we continually revisit our projects to make sure that progress does not plateau.
For this reason, COCO helped farmers in Tanzania to buy 10 cows due to increasingly scarce supplies of manure. Using manure as a fertiliser is not only environmentally friendly, but it is also economically savvy as it eliminates the cost of other chemical fertilisers. In addition to providing a local source of manure, breeding the cows and selling the milk provides new revenue streams. The wider community will benefit straight away as the increased supply of manure drives down prices and fresh milk becomes available to buy. Ultimately, providing these cows will help to ensure the sustainability of the wider community.
This brings us to the end of the United Nations Sustainability Development Goals! Investigating the SDGs has hopefully showcased some of COCO’s life-changing projects, the people who benefit directly from these, and how COCO fits in with the wider picture of international development.
Without your support, this vital work could not continue. In 2016, we hope to bring you even more exciting news of our work, and how your fundraising is changing lives.
It’s World Toilet Day!
On the 19th of November, the United Nations has organised ‘World Toilet Day’ in response to the startling fact that 2.5 billion people across the world do not have access to proper sanitation, including toilets or latrines. In fact, according to the World Toilet Organization, 1 billion people (15% of the world population) are forced to practice open defecation just because of they lack access to a clean and safe toilet.
Poor sanitation is extremely dangerous, causing diarrhoeal diseases and death amongst thousands of children every year. Additionally, the lack of clean and safe toilets place girls and women at risk of sexual violence. The Secretary General of the UN, Bank Ki-moon, argues that, “We have a moral imperative to end open defecation and a duty to ensure women and girls are not at risk of assault and rape simply because they lack a sanitation facility.”
When tackling poverty, providing a clean and safe toilet can be more important than what you think. The World Toilet Organization argues that every $1 spent on water and sanitation generates a $4.3 return in the form of reduced health care costs.
World Toilet Day is important for the environment too. Under Sustainable Development Goal 14, the global community has a responsibility to conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development. This includes an imperative to prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds by 2025. Without toilets, many people are force to resort to open defecation. According to the World Health Organization, many common diseases that can give diarrhoea can spread from one person to another when people defecate in the open air. During the rainy seasons, excrement may be washed away by rain-water. It may run into wells and streams, and the germs in the excreta will then contaminate the water which may be used for drinking, cooking or washing. This in turn leads to the spread of diseases like cholera and typhoid.
In order to tackle this problem at our overseas projects, COCO has built new toilet blocks for students and teachers. By providing toilets at school, it is hoped that students won’t feel that they have to miss out on education. This may be particularly important for female students who would otherwise suffer from a lack of privacy, especially during menstruation.
Toilets have been constructed across our overseas projects, including at Mercy Primary School, The Hoja Project, and Uwawayaki Nursery School. COCO has also worked to make these toilets serve the local communities by providing compost and biogas to help fertilize crops and provide fuel for cooking.
It may seem like such a simple thing, but a toilet really can make all the difference to a child’s life.
After all of the excitement of COCO’s 15th birthday ball, we are very proud to have raised over £15,000 during the evening! To show you how your donations are making a real difference to the lives of so many, here is another instalment of how COCO is working hard to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as set out by the UN in September. Your support makes this amazing work possible.
SDG 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.
SDG 11, then, is another particularly ambitious goal because it encompasses so many different targets which may prove challenging to achieve in rural settlements. However, one of the main targets of SDG 11 is to provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities, by 2030.
COCO has been working hard to finance and build a sports field for children at the Maasai Academy in Kenya. The Maasai Academy was started in 2008 by 3 parents with 6 children. The reason for starting this Academy was that they wanted to make sure their children receive a good education. This Academy has now grown to 120 Children in 6 classes with 7 Teachers and a food security program.
The Olorte Academy is part of COCO’s ‘Schools for Life’ program launched in July 2014. One of the key parts of this program is ‘recreation’. Schools for Life offer children the opportunity to enjoy sport and recreational activities, producing healthy and happy well-rounded children with confidence and skills both inside and outside the classroom. Recreation cultivates great friendship and encourages social interaction. This enables students to develop social skills and engage with others. Team sports and competition promote motivation and enthusiasm whilst also creating a healthy lifestyle.
Due to the Academy being situated on a hill with a steep slope running down to a road, there was an opportunity to build a sports field on this steep slope with the help of heavy machinery. Up to this point, all the outdoor activities, such as assembly, games and sport, were played on this steep gradient. It was very hard for the children to play sports on this hill, as they frequently fell and injured themselves. However, with hard work and dedication, COCO have now finished transforming this steep slope into a great sports field for all of the children. This is the first purpose built Sports Field in this remote area of Maasai Land. The final step in this project will be to buy sports equipment for the children to play with.
SDG 16: Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels.
This SDG specifically aims to prevent abuse and exploitation, and tries to ensure a fairer community for all. Although there is a strong focus here on the global justice system, including courts and legal matters, we can also take a broader view and consider social inclusion. In many societies, for example, people of a particular gender are excluded, even if only informally, from education. This can cause wider problems, including a lack of employment opportunities, or poor financial and food security. It is clear to see that society needs to be inclusive from the very beginning. That’s why it is so important to help as many children as possible to get into education. The benefits of doing so last a lifetime.
Last week, we looked at how COCO helps young girls into education, and how important this can be for broadening their horizons and expelling cultural myths surrounding discriminatory procedures such as female genital mutilation. Without education and social inclusion, gender can dictate the life chances available to a young person. However, by working together to provide opportunities for children to get to school, we can help to reduce violence against women.
What’s more COCO is fighting social exclusion by operating in rural areas, where improvements in technology may be slow to reach and infrastructure difficult to build. Safety can be a key concern for local communities, especially during storm seasons where the weather can make roads unsafe and journeys by foot particularly difficult. Building classrooms and training teachers is vital to helping children from these communities to receive an education. Without this work, they would be forced to make drastic decisions; a challenging trek to school across miles of difficult terrain, or to simply not go at all. By helping communities to build and manage schools in their locality, more children can access education and broaden their future employment opportunities.
SDG 17: Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development
The final SDG we are looking at today is all about finance, capacity-building and sustainability world-wide. This goal is entrenched in politics and state co-operation, hoping to improve relations and global economics.
This is another extremely broad issue, and something that governments, charities, non-governmental organisations and individuals will have to work together to achieve. However, COCO’s overseas projects can help to promote the development of environmentally sound technologies in developing countries. For example, thanks to funding from COCO, rural communities in Tanzania have benefited greatly from sustainable agriculture training. One lady called Happy grew successful crops of tomatoes, bananas and Chinese leaf within 3 months of attending the training course. This has been an amazing opportunity for her to learn more about her garden, and now she can grow enough food to feed her entire family, including her baby Maureen.
For Happy, sustainable agriculture training will be life-changing; ‘‘I want to educate the community and help them to help themselves…I want many women to be involved – women in this area are very poor and living a hard life. I think that sustainable agriculture can help this and we can work together for success, sharing knowledge and space to become successful, in the end sharing the income and reducing the local poverty.’’
By starting from a grassroots level, it is clear that COCO can make a huge difference to the lives of so many people in rural communities. It may only be a drop in the ocean, but to people like Happy, education and entrepreneurship is life changing.
As COCO celebrated our 15th birthday last weekend with our annual ball, we were fortunate to welcome Oswin, the director of the Hoja Project and our co-ordinator in Tanzania, back to the UK.
Oswin is from humble beginnings in Tanzania. In his home village of Mpandangindo opportunities were scarce for the majority of people. Mpandangindo village is typical of many in the Songea region no houses have running water or electricity and a water pump has only recently been installed in the village. Many of the people in the village earn their income from small scale farming or charcoal digging. There is a desperate desire from the whole community for their children to be educated and to be able to attend school, however low income is preventing many from fulfilling this wish.
Ahead of the Christmas of 1979, a prosperous member of the Mpandangindo community announced that anyone helping him to cultivate land would receive pork for their Christmas dinner. As meat was difficult for Oswin’s family to come by, Oswin’s mother, Leokadia, took part in the cultivation of the land despite being 9 months pregnant!
On Christmas Eve morning, Leokadia began cultivation at 8am. Just after lunch her work was interrupted as she went into labour. Unable to afford transport to the nearest clinic, 25KM away, Leokadia attempted to walk. However, 15KM into the journey Oswin was born in a bush.
As a child, Oswin was very small. His parents nicknamed him Aswinili, which meant very thin in the local language of Ngoni. When Oswin hoped to start school, rather than being based on age there was quite a novel test for whether a child was ready to enrol in school. Each child had to put their arm over their head and touch the ear on the opposite side of their body. Unfortunately being quite small, Oswin was unable to do so and missed out on joining the school.
Thankfully in spite of Oswin still being unable to touch his ear the following year, he knew the head of the school and was so given an exception and allowed to enrol. Clearly the head was eager for Oswin to enrol for good reason, as later that year he was entered into a competition to find the best Standard Two student in the ward… Despite Oswin only being in Standard One!
Two representatives from the nine schools in the region were tested in English and Maths. Out of the 18 candidates, Oswin remarkably finished first! Oswin’s exceptional performance in school continued with him being one of only two students from his primary school to achieve sufficient results to continue to secondary school. Oswin had a choice of schools, but chose to attend a religious school as if he achieved grades of over 88% he would not have to pay school fees, which his family could not afford.
Oswin was confident of achieving sufficient grades to avoid paying school fees, but still had to fund his uniform, mattress and school equipment. In order to pay for these items Oswin entered the dangerous charcoal industry, which was a major source of income and, equally, a major source of death in his local community. Fearful for his health, Oswin soon began selling cigarettes, nuts and eggs instead.
Unfortunately Oswin did not earn enough to purchase all that he wanted for school, but his creativity and resourcefulness helped him to get by. Since Oswin was unable to afford soap, he used to offer to wash the clothes of richer students, so that he could use the soap to wash his own too!
Achieving over 88% proved tricky, and without achieving this Oswin would have been forced to pay school fees or, more likely, leave the school. Oswin began to work in the toilet stalls after curfew. He used a kerosene lamp for light and told any teachers or students who passed by that he was feeling unwell.
Unfortunately the kerosene and smoke in the confined space of the toilet cubicle was harming Oswin. Seven months after graduating from secondary school, Oswin started to lose his sight and suffer bad headaches. The problem was so bad that Oswin had to take some time off his new school at which he was studying his A-Levels.
Despite visiting several different hospitals, no one was able to identify the problem Oswin was suffering with. His family even suggested that Oswin visited a witch doctor, though Oswin refused. On one visit to the hospital, a doctor gave Oswin eye drops which completely blinded him.
Six days passed with Oswin anxious about how he was going to continue in his life. Thankfully there happened to be some eye specialists from Germany working in Oswin’s area at the time. The specialists were able to identify Oswin’s problem and prescribed medicine and foods which Oswin should eat. Four days later, Oswin’s sight began to return and continued to improve.
Eventually, Oswin was well enough to return to his A-Level school, but had missed nine months of education. The school suggested that Oswin repeated the year, but scarce resources made this very difficult for Oswin so the school agreed that if he could pass a mock exam, they would allow him to sit the real exam.
With only a month in which to catch up on nine months’ worth of material, Oswin spent a month sleeping around two hours each night. Thankfully Oswin passed the mock and was able to sit the real exam, which he also passed. Things ran more smoothly for the remainder of Oswin’s A-Level studies, enabling Oswin to qualify for University.
University fees were far too high for Oswin to afford. Whilst he considered how he would cover his costs, Oswin got the opportunity to volunteer at Student Partnerships Worldwide (now Restless Development?). Whilst volunteering, Oswin shared two dreams with his fellow volunteers. Firstly, Oswin shared his dream of attending University and, secondly, his dream of constructing a school at which vulnerable students could study for free.
Oswin’s fellow volunteers helped to ensure that both of his dreams came true. One volunteer, Julia Brownlow, told friends and family about Oswin and King Alfred School of North London agreed to sponsor Oswin through University.
Oswin and five volunteers established an NGO with the mission of providing education to vulnerable children. The organisation was named The Hoja Project, with Hoja being some of the volunteers’ initials and also meant “the reason for doing something” in Swahili.
A couple of years later, COCO began partnering with The Hoja Project. The partnership has led to the establishment of Hoja Secondary School, which caters for vulnerable children. Oswin’s dream was finally being realised. As many of our supporters will know, The Hoja Project has gone from strength to strength. Graduates from Hoja Secondary have achieved the highest grades of 173 schools in the region for the past three years. The school is also self-sustainable, which ensures that many more children will access education without facing the same difficulties that Oswin did.
This week, we are looking at some more of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that are concerned with the environment and sustainable energy. In our 15 years, COCO has raised over £2.8 million. We know that barriers to education often involve environmental factors or problems concerning sustainable, reliable energy. However, working together, we can make a real difference to the lives of some of the world’s poorest communities. Last year alone, COCO’s projects positively impacted on the lives of over 15,000 people.
SDG Goal 6: Ensure access to water and sanitation for all
Most of us probably don’t even think about how much clean water we use every day. We rarely think about how easy it is to do everyday tasks, such as washing our clothes, cooking, showering or bathing, or even just having a cup of tea.
The scary fact is that access to water and sanitation is not the norm for everyone.
Some Facts and Figures
Water and Sanitation Initiatives
Here at COCO, we think everyone deserves access to safe water and sanitation. Water is not a luxury – it’s a necessity. That’s why, in 2014, we teamed up with Development Direct to implement water and sanitation initiatives at Mercy Primary School in Kenya.
This project included harvesting rainwater, building compost toilets and providing hand wash and drinking water facilities for students and teachers. Since implanting these initiatives, there have tangible benefits for both the school and the local community.
Mercy Primary School and the surrounding community are situation on the edge of Lake Victoria. Everyone is reliant on water from the lake, which means that the water is unsanitary and waterborne illnesses are a serious concern. However, the headmaster of Mercy School, Hermon Okongo, is convinced that the numbers of waterborne diseases are falling due to the new initiatives. Although it is too soon to gather quantitative evidence of this, the larger than usual number of students enrolling at Mercy School is a positive sign.
SDG Goal 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
Energy is a major challenge across the globe. It seems that everyone is either using too much or too little. In fact, despite the huge problems of climate change, 1 in 5 people still lacks access to modern electricity.
Energy also plays a huge role in poverty. Without access to affordable, reliable, sustainable energy, seemingly mundane tasks such as staying warm and cooking meals are so much more difficult.
Renewable energy projects, often with international donor assistance, have demonstrated that renewable energy can contribute to poverty alleviation. Renewable energy directly supplies businesses and jobs, and turns locally available resources into productive economic assets. This directly links to SDG Goal 8: Promoting inclusive and sustainable economic growth, employment and decent work for all. By providing the energy to increase employment opportunities, and developing technologies and business in local communities, renewable energy encourages economic growth across developing countries.
Renewable energy technologies can also make indirect contributions to alleviating poverty by providing energy for cooking and space heating. By making light more affordable and reliable, renewable energy technologies also permit schools and businesses to operate after dark; access to energy amplifies human capacity.
In 2014, COOC and Cititec worked together to install a solar power system at Hoja Secondary School in Songea, Tanzania. The solar panel system was used to provide energy for a classroom and for lights across the school premises, including the dormitories.
The solar classroom is benefitting students, teachers and project coordinators. The solar classroom provides much needed teaching aids, adding an extra dimension to teaching and making it easier for teachers to keep students stimulated and engaged. For instance, science classes are much more accessible now, because students are able to watch films of scientific experiments rather than just merely reading about them. Having sustainable, reliant energy also means that the school can save 100,000Tsh (£36) per month by accessing educational films rather than buying expensive chemicals for experiments.
The final SDG we are looking at today is Goal 9. This is concerned with building resilient infrastructure, promoting sustainable industrialization and fostering innovation. This may seem extremely ambitious, because it essentially means that an entire community needs a modern make-over to improve irrigation, sanitation, roads, transport… the list goes on. However, COCO has always taken a holistic approach to removing barriers to education. We cannot alleviate poverty without helping local communities, as well as the schools that serve them.
To show how we’ve been working to achieve this, we’re going back to Mercy Primary School in Kenya. As a result of the water and sanitation initiatives, Mercy Primary School has been able to cultivate a ‘Food Forest’. This provides an abundant source of nutritious food to students and teachers at the school. COCO’s coordinator at Mercy Primary, George Odhiambo, explained that, despite there being harsh and dry weather conditions in the local area, the Food Forest has been able to produce crops such as cassava, sweet potatoes, paw-paw, cow peas, African spider flower and muringa. In an effort to maintain momentum and keep the ‘Food Forest’ full, he is also carrying out research into the hardiest varieties of plants to ensure the best one is grown during subsequent planting. By ensuring that the infrastructure is in place, we can help to alleviate the roots of poverty.
You can find out more about how COCO is meeting the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals next week. All facts and figures, and many more, can be found on the UN’s website here: Sustainable Development Goals
As you probably know, we have been tracing how COCO is helping to achieve the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This week, we are investigating inequality. Many of the SDGs target inequality in some form, but two goals in particular focus on this issue.
SDG 5 is all about achieving gender equality and empowering women and girls. Feminism and the concept of empowering women has played an influential role in international relations and public policy over recent years; you will probably remember the popular #heforshe twitter campaign kick-started by UN Women Goodwill Ambassador Emma Watson, and the passing of the Female Genital Mutilation Act 2003 which modernised and expanded the ban on the practice in the UK.
Discrimination against women and girls both in the public sphere and in their own homes is still ongoing. COCO works in a variety of developing countries, and in some communities, there are serious challenges for women and girls.
Across Africa, the legal minimum age for marriage varies from puberty upwards, and in many countries the legal minimum age for marriage is higher for boys. It comes as no surprise then that some girls are unable to continue going to school as they are forced into marriage.
Another huge challenge is the widespread practice of female genital mutilation (FGM). In one of our previous blog posts, ‘Education Removes Ignorance: Listening to Lekrumuni’ , our research team explored how students in Tanzania regarded education as an effective way of tackling issues concerning FGM and women’s rights. By promoting education, it is clear that we can make a real difference to the lives of women and girls across the world.
SDG 10 is also concerned with equality. Here, the UN aims to reduce inequality within and among countries. Although this may sound extremely ambitious, and probably something that needs to be worked on from a governmental level, international development charities like COCO can also help to promote this goal.
Some of the main targets of SDG 10 include empowering and promoting the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status, and ensuring equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action. Many of COCO’s overseas projects are in extremely remote areas, where long-held myths surround discriminatory practices, such as FGM. As a matter of practicality, remote communities are less likely to come into contact with new ideas or scientific advances which disprove stereotypes surrounding gender, sex and social roles.
Education gives girls and women a valuable resource. As noted in the previous blog post, one student summed this up neatly; “education tackles ignorance.” The work that COCO does in our overseas projects aims to create safe, inclusive learning environments to help provide a sustainable future.